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Enhancing the Stages of Change

The Six Stages of Change are enhanced by the 9 Processes and Techniques.
From the book Changing for Good by James Prochaska.

9 Processes

“Processes” are selected activities that are regularly initiated to effect change. There are nine important ones chosen by the authors as distinct areas of consideration and useful “tools” in Changing for Good. They are:

  1. Consciousness-raising: Increasing knowledge about yourself and your problem.
  2. Social liberation: Considerations in the external environment that can contribute to helping change, i.e.: no smoking areas, lo-cal menu items, advocacy groups.
  3. Emotional arousal: Increased awareness through depth of feeling from natural events or dramatic intervention, psychodrama.
  4. Self-reevaluation: A thoughtful and emotional reappraisal of yourself as regards your problem, weighing the pros and cons of changing.
  5. Commitment: Acknowledging that you are the only one who can respond, speak and act for yourself.
  6. Countering: Planning for and substituting healthy responses for unhealthy ones, action oriented.
  7. Environmental control: Restructuring your personal environment so that the probability of a problem-causing event is reduced.
  8. Rewards: Affirmation of desirable behavior by self or others as contrasted with and better than any type of punishment for problem behavior.
  9. Helping relationships: Receiving care, support and assistance from significant people in your life.


The 9 Processes are broad areas which are applied during different stages of change.

Within each process there are usually a number of Techniquesthat can be applied to further the effect. The few examples given with Social liberation above are examples of techniques.

Another illustration of this would be in Countering urges. One person might substitute chewing gum as an alternative to having a cigarette, while another might distract himself by running around the block.